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Lacistemataceae Holistic Database Neotropical Plant Families Database U.K. Communities of Woodland & Scrub Species 2000 University of Reading Herbarium RNG, University of Reading, U.K.

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How to reference this website :

Young FE (2008 onwards) Lacistemataceae Holistic Database, BioScience Holistics, U.K., available online at https://www.lacistemataceae.org/whatsnew.html
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Pinned items :

- Lacistemataceae species key or the MSIE / MSEdge Version of the species key

- List of herbaria holding Lacistemataceae specimens;

- What is taxonomy? Planet Bob video;

- STEMM careers are rapidly changing and many 'don't exist yet' in this 'Age of Information and machine learning' Did You Know? (Shift Happens) a Youtube video by Katy Scott;

- Another excellent Youtube Video by Growth Tribe addresses The Digital Skills Gap and the future of jobs 2020 : The Fundamental Growth Mindset. You need to be proactive and not reactive when it comes to skillsets and your future employment;

- Adapted from Kieran Egan (2008) Learning in Depth, Educational Leadership, Vol. 66(3) 58-63 "What if every child was given a single topic to study from their first week in school to their final week in education.  We could have scientific experts on every organism on the planet!"

- My documents :
  My C.V. (updated 2020Feb19) : My C.V.
  MSc. Dissertation (2009) : Lacistemataceae: e-monography-and-revision;
  Oral presentations (2009) : e-monograph on a shoestring MSc. presentation and Biosyst EU09 presentation;
  My posters : e-monography on a shoestring : LHD (2009), The plant monographer : our role in botany (2019) and What's hidden in your herbarium? (2020);
  My videos : The Plant Monographer : our role in the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and IUCN Red List of Threatened Species;
  Interesting statistics : What's hidden in your herbarium? Herbaria visited by the monographers Sleumer and Young (2020);
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This monograph is constantly updated :

A hard copy monograph would take decades of research before publishing but this is an online evolving work with gaps that I hope to fill, so please bear this in mind when using as a reference source. Filling the gaps has become a great deal easier in the 10+ years since I wrote the first version of this website in 2007 as material stored in museums, herbaria and libries become digital books/articles, virtual herbaria and digital illustrations (2D and 3D).
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The Latest Updates :

2020 May 22 - Addition of pollen image and statistics for Lozania nunkui.

2020 May 15 - Addition of pollen image and statistics for Lozania pittieri.

2020 May 13 - Addition of pollen image and statistics for Lozania mutisiana.

2020 May 12 - Addition of pollen image and statistics for Lacistema polystachyum.

2020 Mar 23 - The final version of the poster 'What's hidden in your herbarium? has been uploaded today.

2020 Mar 19 - Added links to type specimens (Lacistema macrophylla, L. bolivianum, L. krukovii, L. recurvum, L. bolivianum and L. grandifolium) now available from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Many thanks to Federico Fabriani, Curator-Botanist (Americas Team) for his help.

2020 Feb 14 - Added an 'interesting statistics' sub-heading to my documents. The first document relates to the What's hidden in your herbarium poster - the herbaria 'visited' by Sleumer and I.

2020 Jan 29 - I have designed a poster on the statistics of Lacistemataceae names, number of herbaria visited and specimens examined. I plan to turn this poster into a peer reviewed article.

2020 Jan 24 - Discovery of a new name Lacistema piptocarpha subsp. oblongae held at MBM herbarium.

2020 Jan 23 : Common names - evidence is now provided for the majority of these names either as a book link or a herbarium specimen image.

2020 Jan 21 I have uploaded a video titled The Plant Monographer that I constructed for Powerful Tools for Teaching and Learning: Digital Storytelling by University of Houston hosted by www.coursera.org. I wish to thank Coursera for the financial aid provided so I could gain a certificate as evidence of course completion and to make my first video on plant monography.

I have located several more common names for Lacistema aggregatum and five for L. robustum whilst downloading specimen images from SpeciesLink website. At the last count I have 4,536 images which does not include the records at P (500), MO (2,000+), BM (350) or K (350) four of the largest herbaria outside Lacistemataceae distribution range.

2020 Jan 15 Discovery of the French virtual herbaria : e-ReColNat. On this database is two type specimens held by LY herbarium: L. hasslerianum (isotype 5031 & syntype 4632). The types at LY I was looking for are not in the virtual herbarium.

2020 Jan 13 A couple of common names: Samambaia and Laranjinha for Lacistema sp. I have located a Lacistema grandifolium type specimen I believe it is the holotype. Another species name Lacistema pubescens Mart. ssp. polystachyum (Schinzl.) Agost. from a NY herbarium specimen.

2020 Jan 10 I have discovered another isotype of Lacistema pacificum held by the VALLE Herbarium, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia. Located another common name Sucará do miudo for Lacistema pubescens.

I am currently downloading herbaria specimens for analysis - the total so far is : 1,171. I have yet to download NY, F, P, NY which will add another 1,700 specimens. On top of that there is speciesLink to work through total specimens 4,289 but not all of them have images and some are duplicates I already have.

2020 Jan 03 Happy New Decade & Happy New Year everyone. May your science endeavours and grant funding applications be successful! And...

may I be bold enough to say should you have £50,000-£100,000 going spare I would be delighted to spend it for you on my Ph.D in Botanical Systematics so I can finally finish my education which has been interrupted a great many times -between and during study- because of my mental health illness.

Anyway back to the update : today I have added common names to Lacistema : Jigüa negra, Lacistema aggregatum : Arrayan & Cafecito and to Lozania mutisiana : Almanegra. These names were located on specimens held by the UDBC Herbarium, Universidad Distrital “Francisco José de Caldas”, Bogota, Colombia. There is one common name I have not added because I am unsure whether the name relates to the species name on the label Trichilia rubra (Meliaceae) or to Lacistema nena. I am inclined to favour the first option, so for now I have made a note that I need to check this information.

2019 Dec 22 - very basic Lacistema page is now available contains another located common name : Calombo-preto

2019 Dec 20 - More common names: Lacistema aggregatum: Café de monte; L. hasslerianum : Pau-de-lagarto

2019 Dec 19 - Currently at page 16 of 55 of Lacistemataceae Google Scholar search. Planning to complete this mammoth task before Christmas Eve and begin festivities at my Parents. And what have I located so far? Another common name for Lacistema aggregatum : Matacalado and one for Lacistema pubescens : Espeto-vermelho and another for L. aggregatum : Comida de pipira and now one for L. hasslerianum : Cafeeiro-do-mato. All accepted species now have a palynology button but with no images as I haven't located any yet!

2019 Dec 18 - I have located some pollen grain images so I am adding another button (Palynology) to each of the accepted species names. First up Lacistema aggregatum, L. pubescens and Lozania pittieri.

2019 Dec 17 - Discovery of another family synonym - Amentaceae. Three more common names for Lacistema aggregatum all from the Kayapó : Me krê kako, Kukryt kanê and Kukryt nho kryre

2019 Dec 15 - The MSIE and MSEdge versions of the Introduction, Species and Species Key are now available. Now I will be looking for relevant articles / books located on Google Scholar / Biodiversity Heritage Library and other online sources. I also will be exploring all of the Latin names to check they are grammatically correct according to the Rules of Botanical Nomenclature in particular gender (male, female neuter), number (single or plural), case (what does that mean?) and declensions (I, II, III, IV, V). Time to revisit Botanical Latin by William Stern and consult a book new to me The Names of Plants by David Gledhill.

2019 Dec 07 - The distribution maps are now available for the accepted species.

2019 Dec 06 - All accepted species names have been uploaded. These pages need : latitude / longitude / habitat / a distribution map and the description. All synonyms have all three dropdown menus : LSID numbers, The Latin Protologue and Etymology. Protologues : I have to locate 11 of these mainly for the names 'not associated with any accepted species'. Type specimens : I still have to locate a great many of these mainly for synonyms. I will be contacting the relevant herbaria in due course if I haven't already.

2019 Dec 01 - All synonyms (except for Lacistema aggregatum) now have an etymology button.

2019 Nov 26 - All Lacistema aggregatum synonyms are now available. All synonyms have two new buttons : 'The Latin Protologue' (so you can use Google Translator) and 'LSID' (currently IPNI and to be added CoL : 2017 - this is the last year I was responsible for Lacistemataceae data on the Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Project before it was merged with the World Plants database in November 2018). And... another new name Lacistema pavonii syn. Synzyganthera pavonii Poeppig. This name is known only from a herbarium specimen in Wien.

2019 Nov 20 - Trying out some buttons with popup windows visit Lozania nunkui page to try them out.

2019 Nov 18 - Added Lacistema aggregatum synonyms Lacistema angustum and Lacistema myricoides var. stipitatum

2019 Nov 17 - Added Lacistema aggregatum synonyms Lacistema elongatum and Lacistema floribunda. Link to the Lacistemataceae conservation name proposal (see Gilmour 1935 in Literature G page)

2019 Nov 16 - Added link to download the Big Botany Challenge symposium booklet (see 2019 Nov 08 entry). Added Lacistema aggregatum synonyms Synzyganthera purpurea, Didymandra purpurea and Lacistema purpureum

2019 Nov 13 - Updated information on Herman Sleumer visit Taxonomic Literature II and Virtual International Authority File (VIAF). Synonyms : Piper fasciculare, P. fasciculatum, and Nematospermum laevigatum added.

2019 Nov 11 - Synonyms of Lacistema hasslerianum added today. New name located Lacistema sylvestris.

2019 Nov 09 - Synonyms of Lacistema robustum have been added to the species page.

The species and species identification key pages do not work correctly in Microsoft Internet Explorer or Microsoft Edge (why don't their programs work with internet standard HTML 5 coding???) therefore I will be writing pages that do work in these two web browsers.

2019 Nov 08 - Spent the day talking about the teaching of botany at secondary schools at the University of Reading Big Botany Challenge symposium. Download the symposium booklet. See the twitter feed and I presented a poster "The plant monographer: our role in botany". View the poster here or better still download the A0 sized pdf version.

2019 Nov 05 - Added the synonyms of Lacistema grandifolium and L. polystachyum.

2019 Nov 04 - Added the two synonyms of Lacistema pubescens : Lacistema ellipticum and L. pubescens Mart. subsp. serrulatum

2019 Nov 02 - Added the pages for Lacistema polystachyum, Lacistema hasslerianum and Lacistema grandifolium. All of the accepted species are now linked to their species page. Now I begin the synonyms for eight species at the top on the species list page.

2019 Nov 01 - Added the pages for Lacistema serrulatum, Lacistema robustum and Lacistema lucidum.

2019 Oct 29 - Added the page for Lacistema pubescens. There is a problem - what are type specimens for this species? Also added 'pinned items' to the top of this page.

2019 Oct 28 - Have added the Lacistema nena page and a species identification key. The key is not complete as I need to add more images and the pages for the accepted Lacistema species are not currently available although the links are already in place. Added two new names to the species page Lacistemmaceae and Lacistemma both synonyms. These names appear on a herbarium specimen which you can examine yourself if you wish.

2019 Oct 16 - Many thanks to Geoffrey Hall, Collections Manager at MT herbarium for scanning and placing their isotype of Lozania pittieri online. Added links from Lacistema synonyms to protologues. Discovery of a new family synonym - Lacistemaceen. I reiterate again it is of great importance that all historical botany books and type specimen details/images are available online.

2019 Oct 15 - Thanks to Jaime Peña, LOJA Herbarium Curator for supplying the image of Lozania nunkui isotype. Now waiting on AAU and HUT herbaria to 'complete the set'. Also added Lacistemonaceae and Lacistemon synonym names to the species page.

2019 Oct 08 - beginning to work through Lacistema species pages. Added today Lacistema krukovii and Lacistema macbridei.

The accepted species paged currently include protologue, types, common names only. I haven't decided what other information to include in these pages.

2019 Oct 07 - sending out emails to herbaria requesting they check their herbaria for any type specimen related to accepted Lozania species and their synonyms.

2019 Oct 04 - discovery of another name : Lozania granatensis from the botanical drawings of the Royal Botanical Expedition to the new kingdom of Granada (1783-1816), Real Jardin Botanico, Madrid, Spain. Added Lozania mutisiana and Lozania klugii pages. Lozania grandiflora has been removed to another family. Not sure if this is correct. See note on species page.

2019 Oct 02 - accepted species pages added - Lozania pittieri and Lozania glabrata.

In comparison to the 2008 first version of this website when few type specimen images were available now the majority are available from virtual herbaria. The images are inserted into the type specimen tables directly from the online herbaria catalogues and (most) are not held by my website host.

2019 Sep 27 - Just for a change I am going to spread some United Kingdom Twitter botanical love. I am biased towards my alma matres : The Open University and Botany at the University of Reading both celebrating 50th anniversaries in 2019! and Botany at Natural History Museum, London (where I worked in the old general herbarium for about a year) before my MSc. Plant Diversity at Reading.

How about some other favourites of mine...
Cambridge Botanic Garden, Trebah Garden in Cornwall, Wokingham District Veteran Tree Association (I have been a member since 2007. Although I have moved away I still contribute to the Tree Watch publication and write its Index!), Wild flower hour, Botanical Society of Britain & Ireland, Dr. M goes Wild, Alastair Culham (who gets two links), The Woodland Trust (I confess I love hugging trees!), and not forgetting the general tag for #botany. These are just a few for you to peruse at your leisure. Make sure you pass your botanical love onto students of all ages - Happy botanising everyone!

2019 Sep 26 - name change for Lacistema berterianum to Lacistema berteroanum see species page and acknowledgements page. Thanks to Helen Hartley, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew for her assistance in this matter.

Useful website page : updated link to 2018 International Code of Nomenclature Shenzhen Code and a very useful companion online book : Turland N (2019) The Code Decoded and for Dr M.'s additional links to 50 Years of Reading Botany Masters celebrating 50 years of teaching botany at University of Reading, U.K. and its Twitter page.

2019 Sep 23 - It drives me completely nuts when so called 'stable' hyperlinks to type specimens are being changed on a regular basis! For goodness sake decide on your database structure, how your database is accessed by your online pages and stop changing the addresses to the specimens please. Consequently I have had to revisit all the completed pages for any problems - I have better things to do with my time like update the accepted species pages.

Well this is interesting Sleumer (1980) wrote that Lozania bipinnata A.E. Lawrance 524 held at US herbarium. While asking for the type specimen to be available online, John Boggan of US Herbarium (Smithsonian Institution) has pointed me to the correct location of the holotype -it is not the US specimen- but the Gray herbarium, Harvard University. A commentary has been added to L. bipinnata page. Many thanks John. I have added you to my acknowledgements page.

It just goes to show how valuable it is to have all herbaria specimens available online!

2019 Sep 22 - I have created a video of a Lacistema aggregatum leaf. The Original image used for the 2D video below. This video is also located on the introduction page under 'What plant characteristics are always found in this family?' heading.


2019 Sep 10 - Lacistema pittieri, Lozania pedicellata, Lacistema pedicellatum and Lacistema trichoneurum synonyms of Lozania pittieri added to the species list.

2019 Sep 07 - Added Perrottetia racemosa and Perrottetia costaricensis synonyms of Lozania mutisiana. I have not been able to locate the type specimens of Perrottetia racemosa online at F and US herbaria. Looking at the GBIF database it appears that someone has mixed up Perrottetia racemosa (Oliv.) Loes., Celastraceae - a native of China and Perrottetia racemosa Stand., Lacistemataceae. The information is coming from NSII - China National Specimen Information Infrastructure. Is it possible that Lacistemataceae species are genuinely located in China? Unfortunately the images are of low resolution so I cannot examine the floral structures... how I love a good mystery!

2019 Sep 06 - Today I have added synonyms to Lozania mutisiana: Lozania nemoralis, Monandrodendron schultzei, Monandrodendron peruvianum and Lozania bipinnata pages.

It is rather fascinating how many herbaria specimens details are now available online compared to when I first wrote this website back in 2007. When all herbaria (3,095 active herbaria!) information is available via GBIF I will then download all this information and be in a position to locate even more type specimens. If only all Lacistemataceae specimens were imaged and also online then I could re-evaluate the entire family -using morphological characteristics- and publish articles in journals and on this website! If I publish enough articles and I could achieve a Ph.D by Publication!

2019 Sep04 - I am beginning to update the synonyms of the Lozania species. The first two pages are Lacistemopsis poculifera and Monandrodendron klugii both are accessed underneath the Lozania klugii heading on the species page. Where possible the holotype specimen image is shown. This image is directly downloaded from the herbarium holding this specimen and is not held directly on this website. Some previously shown type specimen images were used only with permission of the holding herbarium but as many more type specimen images are available online this is now a rare occurrence.

2019 Aug 14 - This website now has a Cookies notice and Cookies Policy page.

2019 Aug 11 - Introduction page completed. Bibliography pages all updated with the new menu. Plant images have been added to introduction page - question: What plant characteristics are always found in this family?

2019 Aug 09 - All pages updated with new menu with the exception of the Bibliography pages. To complete - Introduction, Species, Species Key and dynamic data pages. Need to add images of plant parts. I have been asked to resubmit my Ph.D proposal in a particular style which is required for this particular university department so I won't be working on this website for a few days only.

2019 Aug 06 - New modern pop up side menu that should shift to the top on smaller screens.

2019 Aug - What have I been doing since last year? Taking many Coursera.org courses so I could write a Ph.D proposal. I am also currently updating my School Governor training before starting at a new school for the next academic year 2019/2020.

2018 Nov 23 - Added a Youtube video on how the cyber world is changing the way we use information. Find it on Introduction page: Why did I write this website? And here:
Did You Know? (Shift Happens) by Katy Scott uploaded to Youtube 2018 July 17.

2018 Nov 05 - Planet Bob is back on this website after a hiatus of 8 years! Why? because it addresses a very important question of why we need taxonomy? Planet Bob by Arizona State University & MediaAlchemy. The link is found on the Introduction Page : What is taxonomy?

2018 Nov 03 - MSc Plant Diversity, University of Reading and RNG Herbarium have new websites. Updating this information throughout the current site pages before I continue to add more pages.