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Lacistemataceae Holistic Database Neotropical Plant Families Database U.K. Communities of Woodland & Scrub Species 2000 University of Reading Herbarium RNG, University of Reading, U.K.

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Welcome to all things relating to Lacistemataceae.

The aim of this electronic monograph is to aggregate all knowledge regarding Lacistemataceae and to make this knowledge free and open access to educational and scientific advancement. If you want to make money from this site please contact me.

The material is gathered from a wide variety of sources including herbaria holotypes, literature, genetic databases, Codes of Nomenclature, the Convention of Biological Diversity, Flora Brasiliensis, IUCN Red List and many many more. External links to other websites are found under the tab.

This website was originally written for the Convention on Biological Diversity : 2010 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) Target 1 : to provide "a widely accessible working list of known plant species, as a step towards a complete world flora". As GSPC 2010 has been succeeded by GSPC 2011-2020 this website now relates to all objectives:

You may have a few questions regarding Lacistemataceae, hopefully I have covered most of the questions you may have thought of. Click on the question to see the answer.

Why did you write this website?
I love taxonomy, cybertaxonomy, the etymology of plant names, plant monographs and the definition of a species but also because it was part of my 2009 MSc. Plant Diversity dissertation, Centre for Plant Taxonomy and Systematics, University of Reading, Reading, U.K.

To attempt to 'keep up' with the exponential growth of online information (especially herbaria specimen material where I have discovered many common names for species!) and ultimately is responsible for making hard format books and journals out of date as soon as they are written or even thought about!

Our world is changing rapidly and consequently new jobs are being created that have never existed before. This video demonstrates what is happening because of the cyber world - Did You Know? by Katy Scott uploaded to Youtube 2018 July 17. Also available is the Did You Know? 2019 version by mesjms uploaded to Youtube 2019Jan13.

What is taxonomy?
Take a look at the excellent Youtube video for an explanation - Planet Bob by Arizona State University & MediaAlchemy.

What is a plant monograph?
A monograph is a detailed study of a single specialized subject, in this case Lacistemataceae.

Why did you choose this plant family to write about?
According to The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016) there are 416 flowering plant families and I wanted to write an electronic monograph for my MSc. Plant Diversity dissertation (University of Reading, Reading, U.K.).

At the time I was interested in Neotropical plants and due to time constraints for project completion the family chosen needed to be small. The previous expert Dr Herman Otto Sleumer died in 1993 therefore I decided to take over his role and update his monograph for the 21st Century cyber age.

What is this website based upon?
Sleumer H O (1980) Flora Neotropica: Monograph Number 22 - Flacourtiaceae, The New York Botanical Garden, New York: 182-206

What is Lacistemataceae?
A family of plants.

How many genera are there?
Two : Lacistema and Lozania

How many species are there? (as of 2018 Nov 01)
16. 11 Lacistema and 5 Lozania

What was the first species discovered, when, where and by whom?
Lacistema aggregatum. However at that time the plant was called Piper aggregatum as it was believed to be a member of the Piperaceae family (Peppers). It was collected in Suriname but it is unknown when this plant was collected or by whom but it was first described by Peter Jonas Bergius (translated from Swedish to English - Google Translator required) in 1772. Bergius may have collected this plant himself but there is no evidence to support this idea.

Where can I read about this first species description and where can I view the specimen?
The description was written in the language of science - Latin and can be viewed online at the Biodiversity Heritage Library.
Bergio P J (1772) Ternio graminum ex America Novorum descripta et iconibus illustrata in Acta Helvetica, Physico-Mathematico-Anatomico-Botanico-Medica figuris aeneis illustrata, et in Usus Publicos exarata, Typis & Sumptibus Joh. Rodolphi Im-Hof et Filii, Volumen 7: pages 131-132.
The book illustration Table X was drawn from the actual collected specimen which can be viewed online at The Bergius Herbarium (SBT), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Why is the family name Lacistemataceae and not Lacistemaceae?
Discussion on the family name

Where is Lacistemataceae classified within the Plant Kingdom? What families is it closely related to?
Lacistemataceae classification

How can I identify this family from other Neotropical families?
I recommend using the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew : Neotropical Flowering Plant Families Key online at Lucid Central.org.

What kind of plants are they?
Woody species. Trees and shrubs.

What plant characteristics are always found in this family?
The growth point: Encompassed by a pair of stipules which may or may not remain in situ when the leaf has reached maturity;

The leaf: brochidodromus venation and always on alternate sides of the stem. The Original image used for the 2D video below:

The inflorescence: a catkin composed of numerous flowers. Located between leaf stalk and plant stems (the leaf axil);

The flower: 1 millimetre in length. Each flower has a single stamen composed of a single filament bifurcating into two anthers. The single pistil is a single superior ovum with a single style topped with three stigma;

The fruit: an aril surrounding a single seed.

What is the geographical location of this family?
In the Neotropics also known as the New World or the Americas.

The family is distributed from Mexico south across the Isthmus of Panama and south to Northern Argentina. Also found in the Caribbean Islands of Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago.

I am using the 2001 TDWG Standard - Edition 2 written by Richard Brummitt : World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions (WGSRPD) to provide detailed information for: Region name/code, Level 3 Name/Code, Level 4 Name/Code. To these codes I have added the International Standard for Country Codes - ISO3166 - Level 2 Codes. The Level 3 TDWG Codes do not always correspond to the Level 3 ISO-3166 Standard, please do not make that assumption.

Lacistemataceae herbaria specimens: What TDWG regions have they been collected from?
Region Name Region Code Level 3 Name Level 3 Code Level 4 Name Level 4 Code Level 5 Code ISO 3166 Herbaria: Country previously filed under
Northern America 79 Mexico Gulf MXG Veracruz VC MXG-VC MX -
Northern America 79 Mexico Southeast MXT Tabasco TB MXT-TB MX -
Northern America 79 Mexico Southwest MXS Chiapas CI MXS-CI MX -
Northern America 79 Mexico Southwest MXS Guerrero GR MXS-GR MX -
Northern America 79 Mexico Southwest MXS Oaxaca OA MXS-OA MX -
Central America 80 Belize BLZ Belize OO BLZ-OO BZ -
Central America 80 Costa Rica COS Costa Rica OO COS-OO CR -
Central America 80 Guatemala GUA Guatemala OO GUA-OO GT -
Central America 80 Honduras HON Honduras OO HON-OO HN -
Central America 80 Nicaragua NIC Nicaragua OO NIC-OO NI -
Central America 80 Panama PAN Panama OO PAN-OO PA -
Caribbean 81 Jamaica JAM Jamaica OO JAM-OO JM -
Caribbean 81 Trinidad-Tobago TRT Trinidad-Tobago OO TRT-OO TT -
Northern South America 82 French Guiana FRG French Guiana OO FRG-OO GF -
Northern South America 82 Guyana GUY Guyana OO GUY-OO GY British Guiana
Northern South America 82 Suriname SUR Suriname OO SUR-OO SR Dutch Guiana
Northern South America 82 Venezuela VEN Venezuela OO VEN-OO VE -
Western South America 83 Bolivia BOL Bolivia OO BOL-OO BO -
Western South America 83 Colombia CLM Colombia OO CLM-OO CO -
Western South America 83 Ecuador ECU Ecuador OO ECU-OO EC -
Western South America 83 Peru PER Peru OO PER-OO PE -
Southern America 84 Brazil North BZN Acre AC BZN-AC BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil North BZN Amapá AP BZN-AP BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil North BZN Amazonas AM BZN-AM BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil North BZN-PA Pará PA BZN-PA BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil North BZN Rondônia RO BZN-RO BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil North BZN Roraima RM BZN-RM BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil North BZN Tocantins TO BZN-TO BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil Northeast BZE Alagoas AL BZE-AL BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil Northeast BZE Bahia BA BZE-BA BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil Northeast BZE Maranhão MA BZE-MA BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil Northeast BZE Pernambuco PE BZE-PE BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil South BZS Paraná PR BZS-PR BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil Southeast BZL Espírito Santo ES BZL-ES BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil Southeast BZL Minas Gerais MG BZL-MG BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil Southeast BZL Rio de Janeiro RJ BZL-RJ BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil Southeast BZL São Paulo SP BZL-SP BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil West Central BZC Brasilia Distrito Federal DF BZC-DF BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil West-Central BZC Goiás GO BZC-GO BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil West-Central BZC Mato Grosso MT BZC-MT BR -
Southern America 84 Brazil West-Central BZC Mato Grosso do Sul MS BZC-MS BR -
Southern South America 85 Argentina Northeast AGE Misiones MI AGE-MI AR -
Southern South America 85 Paraguay PAR Paraguay OO PAR-OO PY -

Which ecological niche do they live in?
Mountain, dry and moist forests; wet lowland forests; Cerrado (grassland);
Primary and secondary forests;
Forest canopy strata: C/D vegetation layers (understorey layers;)
In newly open forest where trees have fallen;
Colonisers of open and waste ground;
As a coloniser these species are considered a weed in agricultural settings.

Where do I find genetic information for this family?
Number of chromosomes: circa 2n = 62 thus n = 31 [see Morawetz 1981].

May I suggest this European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) database search of Lacistemataceae to start you on your journey.

Do any of these species have any human uses?
Duchelle (2007) discovered that the Indigenous Shuar people of Ecuador use Lozania klugii for construction, forage and fuel.

Lozania pittieri has been tested as a cancer chemopreventive agent : Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor - see Jang (1997) for more information.

Roumy and colleagues (2007) investigated Lacistema aggregatum as a source of a traditional medicine to treat malari as used by the Peruvian indigenous tribes of the Quechua and Mestizo based in Loreto.

Williams (1936) wrote Lacistema rosidiscum (a synonym of Lacistema aggregatum) is a "strong, durable timber is esteemed for use in general construction and carpentry." He also says Lacistema nena "is a timber only used for fuel."

Why is the website background yellow?
It is yellow for two reasons :
1 : for dyslexics it makes the text easy to read. It provide less of a contrast between background and foreground colors;
2 : I am photosensitive and it reduces the brightness of the pages.